Three sets of low solidity steam turbine nozzle cascades were designed and tested. The objective was to reduce cost through a reduction in parts count while maintaining or improving performance. The primary application is for steam turbine high pressure sections where Mach numbers are subsonic and high levels of unguided turning can be tolerated. The base line design A has a ratio of pitch to axial chord of 1.2. This is the pitch diameter section of a 50% reaction stage that has been verified by multistage testing on steam to have a high level of efficiency. Designs B and C have ratios of pitch to axial chord of 1.5 and 1.8, respectively. All three designs satisfy the same inlet and exit vector diagrams. Analytical surface Mach number distributions and boundary layer transition predictions are presented. Extensive cascade test measurements were carried out for a broad incidence range from . At each incidence, four outlet Mach numbers were tested, ranging from 0.2 to 0.8, with the corresponding Reynolds number variation from to . Experimental results of loss coefficient and blade surface Mach number are presented and compared for the three cascades. The experimental results have demonstrated low losses over the tested Mach number range for a wide range of incidence from . Designs B and C have lower profile losses than design A. The associated flow physics is interpreted using the results of wake profile, blade surface Mach number distribution, and blade surface oil flow visualization, with the emphasis placed on the loss mechanisms for different flow conditions and the loss reduction mechanism with lower solidity. The effect of the higher profile loading of the lower solidity designs on increased end wall losses induced by increased secondary flow, especially on low aspect ratio designs, is the subject of ongoing studies.
Aerodynamic Design and Testing of Three Low Solidity Steam Turbine Nozzle Cascades
Song, B., Ng, W. F., Cotroneo, J. A., Hofer, D. C., and Siden, G. (March 1, 2004). "Aerodynamic Design and Testing of Three Low Solidity Steam Turbine Nozzle Cascades." ASME. J. Turbomach. January 2007; 129(1): 62–71. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.2372774
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