A horizontal forging machine, Impacter, was used to determine coefficients of friction under different conditions of forging 1020 steel and 2014 T-4 aluminum. Short cylinders were open die forged with repeated blows and the reduction of height determined for one to eight blows. The area under a calculated forging force versus reduction curve was related to available energy in the impellers so that a theoretical reduction for each blow could be determined for different coefficients of friction.
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Friction and Lubrication Effects in Open Die Impact Forging
C. E. Cruff,
C. E. Cruff
Engineering, Manufacturing R&D, Methods and Process Developments, Pratt & Whitney Aircraft, East Hartford, Conn.
C. C. Reynolds
Materials Engineering, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester, Mass.
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Cruff, C. E., and Reynolds, C. C. (January 1, 1975). "Friction and Lubrication Effects in Open Die Impact Forging." ASME. J. of Lubrication Tech. January 1975; 97(1): 14–17. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.3452524
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