A horizontal forging machine, Impacter, was used to determine coefficients of friction under different conditions of forging 1020 steel and 2014 T-4 aluminum. Short cylinders were open die forged with repeated blows and the reduction of height determined for one to eight blows. The area under a calculated forging force versus reduction curve was related to available energy in the impellers so that a theoretical reduction for each blow could be determined for different coefficients of friction.

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