In this study, composite coatings of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and epoxy resin deposited with La2O3 and MoS2 nanoparticles on the surface of a Babbitt alloy have been studied in order to improve its tribological performance. A pin-on-disc tribometer was used to evaluate the tribological properties of the Babbitt alloys with and without the composite coatings. The results showed that compared with the polymer-La2O3 composite coating, the polymer-MoS2 composite coating was more effective in reducing the friction coefficient and the wear rate of the Babbitt substrate under both dry and boundary lubrication conditions compared with the polymer-La2O3 composite coating. However, the wear rate of the Babbitt alloy with the polymer-La2O3 composite coating was lower than that of the alloy with the polymer-MoS2 composite coating. The wear scratches were analyzed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The worn surface of the polymer-La2O3 coating was much smoother and more continuous than that of the polymer-MoS2 coating, meanwhile transfer films were respectively detected on the pin surfaces. The addition of nanoparticles can reduce the wear rate and friction coefficient of polymer composite coating by forming a transfer film. Hence, the polymer composite coating can protect the Babbitt substrate.