This paper aims at a theoretical explanation of the following two experimental observations of radial lip seals: fluid film formation and upstream pumping action. The origins of these observations are still poorly understood. A hydrodynamic analysis is presented for the fully flooded contact zone of a smooth shaft surface running against a rough seal surface. Four roughness structures are considered: one-dimensional sinusoidal and two-dimensional sinusoidal seal roughness structures both without and with a tangential seal surface displacement. The tangential seal surface displacement is chosen asymmetric with the axial position in the contact. It follows that the tangential deformation of the one- and two-dimensional seal roughness structures used in this paper can explain the aforementioned experimental observations and simulate the observed order of magnitude of load-carrying capacity, pump rate, and friction torque found in the literature.
Upstream Pumping of Radial Lip Seals by Tangentially Deforming, Rough Seal Surfaces
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Van Bavel, P. G. M., Ruijl, T. A. M., Van Leeuwen, H. J., and Muijderman, E. A. (April 1, 1996). "Upstream Pumping of Radial Lip Seals by Tangentially Deforming, Rough Seal Surfaces." ASME. J. Tribol. April 1996; 118(2): 266–275. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.2831295
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