Computational models for predicting transient temperature distributions, residual stresses, and residual deflections for girth-butt welds are described. Comparisons of predicted and measured temperatures for a two-pass welded pipe show agreement to within 9 percent and 17 percent of the measured values for passes one and two, respectively, the model for predicting residual stresses and residual deflections is based on a finite-element representation recognizing individual passes, temperature dependent elastic-plastic constitutive behavior, elastic unloading for material in the nonlinear stress-strain range, and changes in geometry due to the deformation of each weld pass. Load incrementation and incremental stress-strain relations are also used. Results for a two-pass girth-butt welded pipe show good correlation between residual stresses and residual deflections obtained from the computational model and data obtained from a welded 304 stainless steel pipe.

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