Oxygen belongs to the group of the most important isotopes in the nuclear data field. The aim of this paper is validate various oxygen nuclear data libraries in different scenarios with high content of oxygen. For this purpose, fast neutron spectra were measured by a stilbene scintillation detector in the region of 1–10 MeV in the three model cases involving 252Cf neutron source and light water reactor. The cases include measurements of leakage spectra using 252Cf neutron source placed in the centers of the light water and heavy water spheres of 0.30 m diameter. Following measurements were carried out inside the concrete biological shielding of the VVER-1000 mock-up simulator in the LR-0 reactor and in the dry channel located in the center of the special core placed in the LR-0 reactor. In the case of the special core, symmetric active core consisted of six standard fuel assemblies which surround the experimental dry module, where the fast neutron spectrum was measured. The measured neutron spectra were compared with MCNP6 transport code calculations in ENDF/B-VII.1, ENDF/B-VIII.0, JENDL-4.0, and IRSN 16O nuclear data evaluations. Experimental results for all cases follow similar trend. All considered libraries underestimate experimental measurement in the region of 3–4 MeV in all cases.