tDCS is a neuromodulation technique that involves noninvasive delivery of weak direct current (1–2 mA) to the brain. Conventionally, tDCS employs rectangular saline-soaked sponge pads (25–35 cm2) placed on the scalp, with an internal electrode connected to the current source. Impedance measurement across the current source output may fail to recognize nonuniform conditions at the skin interface such an uneven content or saturation. tDCS is well tolerated with minor adverse effects limited to transient skin irritation [1]. Nonetheless, technology that enhances the sophistication of electrode design would further enhance tolerability and promote broad (e.g., home) use.

In order to enhance the reliability and tolerability of tDCS, we describe a novel method called WECS. This concept is distinct from (across electrode) current steering, as developed for implanted devices such as deep brain stimulation (DBS), where current is steered between electrodes that are each in contact with tissue,...

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