Body temperature monitoring of humans has been an important tool for diagnosing infections, detecting fever, monitoring thermoregulation functions during surgical procedures, and assessing postsurgery recovery. Temperature is measured at various body sites including the pulmonary artery, rectum, bladder, distal esophagus and nasopharynx, sublingual surface of the tongue, under the armpit, tympanic membrane, and forehead. Inexpensive, off-the-shelf digital thermometers are generally used to measure temperature orally or under the arm. Currently, many such thermometers are available with a “fast read” capability, where they produce temperature readings in 5–10 s.

In a previous study [1], we used a custom-designed, small thermistor bead-based thermometer (NIST traceable) and a computer data acquisition system to measure and record temperatures at a rate of 7 Hz (“reference thermometer”). Therefore, the reference thermometer records the temperature rise (transient data) from the initial contact with the skin until equilibrium. The small bead ensures rapid heat transfer...

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