Public and private institutions invest over $100 billion annually in biomedical research [1]. These funds can be misused and the value diminished if the engineers and clinicians are not aligning work with areas of clinical need [2]. As medical device developers have pointed out, “Get (the clinical need) right and you have a chance, get it wrong and all further effort is likely to be wasted” [3, p. 3]. Needfinding is a formal tool within the design cycle used to fully understand the problem, particularly when involving human behavior [4]. While effective when used, these methods are reported to be underutilized in healthcare practice [5–7] due to unique challenges in healthcare [8,9]. This lack of early stage input can lead to unnecessary investment in new projects already destined to fall short of the potential clinical improvements...

You do not currently have access to this content.