The technical challenges of laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) stem from the nonideal instrument configuration in which all of the instrumentation is inserted through a single small incision and are greater than those faced when using conventional laparoscopy (CL). LESS configuration results in more instrument collisions, an in-line view of the instruments, and the surgeon's close proximity to assistants [1–3]. These limitations of LESS procedures and its related technologies that, along with possible increased physical risk to the surgeon, currently limit the standardization and universal adoption of this pioneering technique . Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) which includes LESS is very appealing to the patient for the immediate outcomes including reduced scarring and recovery time [5–8]. Scarring in LESS is isolated to one incision within the umbilicus compared to four small incision scars resulting from CL. Although both types of surgery offer advantages to the patient,...
Preliminary Comparison of Laparoendoscopic Single-Site Surgery Instrumentation With Novice Surgical Interns: How Usability Testing Can Reveal Human Factors Issues Prior to Errors in the Operating Room1
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Lowndes, B., McCrory, B., LaGrange, C., Farley, D., and Susan Hallbeck, M. (April 28, 2014). "Preliminary Comparison of Laparoendoscopic Single-Site Surgery Instrumentation With Novice Surgical Interns: How Usability Testing Can Reveal Human Factors Issues Prior to Errors in the Operating Room." ASME. J. Med. Devices. June 2014; 8(2): 020949. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4027063
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