This work presents developed methods for simulating ultrasound of a patient's lumbar spine of various body mass index (BMI), for ultrasound guided needle insertion. In 2008 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) introduced new interventional procedure guidance for using ultrasound during epidural needle insertions. There are six main benefits that ultrasound guidance offers the epidural procedure (i) identifying the midline (longitudinal view) (ii) identifying the sacrum (iii) finding the level L3/L4 interspace (articular processes) (iv) identifying the ligamentum flavum (v) identify angle of insertion (vi) measuring the depth of the epidural space.

Currently there are no simulators allowing ultrasound guided epidural practice. Ultrasound is a desirable method to measure epidural space depth and tissue layer thickness because compared to alternatives like X-ray, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or fluoroscopy because it is radiation free, nonhazardous, real-time, relatively cheap, can view any angle, and can target small remote tissue areas....

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