Mathematical models currently exist that explore the physiology of normal and traumatized intracranial function. Mechanical models are used to assess harsh environments that may potentially cause head injuries. However, few mechanical models are designed to study the adaptive physiologic response to traumatic brain injury. We describe a first-order physical model designed and fabricated to elucidate the complex biomechanical factors associated with dynamic intracranial physiology. The uni-directional flow device can be used to study interactions between the cranium, brain tissue, cerebrospinal fluid, vasculature, blood, and the heart. Solid and fluid materials were selected to simulate key properties of the cranial system. Total constituent volumes (solid and fluid) and volumetric flow represent adult human physiology, and the lengths of the individual segments along the flow-path are in accord with Poiseuille’s equation. The physical model includes a mechanism to simulate autoregulatory vessel dynamics. Intracranial pressures were measured at multiple locations throughout the model during simulations with and without post-injury brain tissue swelling. Two scenarios were modeled for both cases: Applications of vasodilation/constriction and changes in the head of bed position. Statistical results indicate that all independent variables had significant influence over fluid pressures measured throughout the model including the vasoconstriction mechanism . The physical model represents a first-order design realization that helps to establish a link between mathematical and mechanical models. Future designs will provide further insight into traumatic head injury and provide a framework for unifying the knowledge gained from mathematical models, injury mechanics, clinical observations, and the response to therapies.
A First-Order Mechanical Device to Model Traumatized Craniovascular Biodynamics
Kohles, S. S., Mangan, R. W., Stan, E., and McNames, J. (July 30, 2006). "A First-Order Mechanical Device to Model Traumatized Craniovascular Biodynamics." ASME. J. Med. Devices. March 2007; 1(1): 89–95. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.2355689
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