The hybrid cellular automaton (HCA) algorithm is a methodology developed to simulate the process of structural adaptation in bones. This methodology incorporates a distributed control loop within a structure in which ideally localized sensor cells activate local processes of the formation and resorption of material. With a proper control strategy, this process drives the overall structure to an optimal configuration. The controllers developed in this investigation include two-position, proportional, integral and derivative strategies. The HCA algorithm combines elements of the cellular automaton (CA) paradigm with finite element analysis (FEA). This methodology has proved to be computationally efficient to solve topology optimization problems. The resulting optimal structures are free of numerical instabilities such as the checkerboarding effect. This investigation presents the main features of the HCA algorithm and the influence of different parameters applied during the iterative optimization process.
Topology Optimization Using a Hybrid Cellular Automaton Method With Local Control Rules
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Tovar, A., Patel, N. M., Niebur, G. L., Sen, M., and Renaud, J. E. (January 7, 2006). "Topology Optimization Using a Hybrid Cellular Automaton Method With Local Control Rules." ASME. J. Mech. Des. November 2006; 128(6): 1205–1216. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.2336251
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