Existing kinematic models for linkages fail to satisfy three criteria important for modeling an arthropod leg: (1) proportionality—changes in parameters should be proportional to changes in leg, (2) similarity—legs with similar appearance should have similar model parameters, (3) expandability—model should accommodate both single- and multi-degree-of-freedom joints since both are usually represented on a single leg. The theoretical basis for a linkage model is examined and a model developed with equations for revolute-revolute, revolute-spherical, and revolute-prismatic links. Parameters for legs of a darkling beetle are presented.

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