Wilson and Shen’s semi-empirical equation for the effective hardness of a plastically deforming workpiece is used to develop models for tool-workpiece friction in metal-forming processes operating in the boundary lubrication regime. The models treat both steady and unsteady conditions and include the influence of tooling and workpiece topography, sliding speed, interface pressure, and workpiece strain rate on friction. Simplified models are suggested for conditions typical of bulk forming and sheet-metal forming processes.

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