This paper presents a review of recent advances in modeling and simulation of conventional metal machining processes, which continue to dominate a significant part of all machining processes, and in recent years, the need for predictive models for machining processes has grown in importance in the digital manufacturing age. Significant advances have been made in modeling the mechanics of cutting in conventional machining, driven by industrial need and enabled by rapid advances in computational power. The paper surveys the state-of-the-art in analytical and numerical modeling of conventional metal machining processes with a focus on their ability to predict useful performance attributes including chip geometry, forces, temperatures, tool wear, residual stress, and microstructure. Also included in the review is a discussion of the industrial use of modeling and simulation tools for conventional machining. Additionally, the practical applicability, implementation benefits, and methodological limitations of conventional machining process modeling have been examined. The paper concludes with a summary of future research directions in modeling and simulation of conventional metal machining processes.