This paper describes hydrostatic extrusion experiments in which paraffin wax was extruded, undertaken to test the validity of a theory proposed by Iyengar and Rice concerning the conditions necessary for hydrodynamic lubrication. Three fluids were used: castor oil, and two silicone fluids. Stress-strain curves obtained at several strain rates revealed that the particular wax behaves like many metals in that Y = Aεm. Strain-rates in the die are assessed, and corresponding values of Y are incorporated in the Hoffman and Sachs analysis of extrusion, which is then used to estimate the coefficient of friction from observed values of extrusion pressure. Analogy with journal bearing friction phenomena leads to the conclusion that at higher speeds hydrodynamic lubrication was attained with all three fluids, but that it was “thin-film” rather than “thick-film” predicted for similar billet speeds. Violent pressure fluctuations observed at higher speeds with castor oil, but not with the silicone fluids are attributed to smaller compressibility and viscosity of the castor oil.
An Experimental Investigation of Lubrication in Hydrostatic Extrusion Using Wax as a Model Material
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Wuerscher, A., and Rice, W. B. (August 1, 1972). "An Experimental Investigation of Lubrication in Hydrostatic Extrusion Using Wax as a Model Material." ASME. J. Eng. Ind. August 1972; 94(3): 913–919. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.3428270
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