A loop heat pipe (LHP) is an efficient passive, two-phase heat transfer device which can transport heat up to large distances (over ∼ 5 m) even in the anti-gravity mode. It is necessary to miniaturize the LHPs to make them suitable for space-constrained avionics applications. However, before incorporating these devices under high-vibrational environmental conditions such as those encountered in avionics applications, it is imperative to study their thermal performance under such loads. With the aim of understanding the effect of acceleration and frequency of imposed vibration on thermal performance of miniature LHP (mLHP), a contextual experimental study has been reported here using an ammonia charged mLHP (8 mm evaporator diameter; titanium wick) in the horizontal orientation for two cases: (a) without vibration and (b) with the transverse and longitudinal harmonic vibrations (1–4g, frequencies 15–45 Hz, and sine sweep 15–45 Hz in 1 s). With start-up loads between 5 W and 8 W, the LHP can transfer heat load of about 120 W at safe evaporation temperature of 70 °C. Results show that for the transverse vibration, acceleration rate and frequency of imposed vibrations do not affect the thermal performance of mLHP. For the longitudinal vibration, the device performance gets noticeably enhanced with increased acceleration. The decisive role of heat leak (from evaporator to the compensation chamber (CC)) with imposed vibrations is clearly observed, and its link to the internal fluid distribution can be discerned from data trends.