Longitudinal vortices can be generated in a channel flow by punching or mounting small triangular or rectangular pieces on the channel wall. Depending on their forms, these vortex generators (VG) are called delta wing, rectangular wing, pair of delta winglets, and pair of rectangular winglets. The heat transfer enhancement and the flow losses incurred by these four basic forms of VGs have been measured and compared in the Reynolds number range of 2000 to 9000 and for angles of attack between 30 and 90 deg. Local heat transfer coefficients on the wall have been measured by liquid crystal thermography. Results show that winglets perform better than wings and a pair of delta winglets can enhance heat transfer by 46 percent at Re=2000 to 120 percent at Re=8000 over the heat transfer on a plate.
Comparison of Wing-Type Vortex Generators for Heat Transfer Enhancement in Channel Flows
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Tiggelbeck, S., Mitra, N. K., and Fiebig, M. (November 1, 1994). "Comparison of Wing-Type Vortex Generators for Heat Transfer Enhancement in Channel Flows." ASME. J. Heat Transfer. November 1994; 116(4): 880–885. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.2911462
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