Heat transfer and fluid mechanics data were obtained for a turbulent boundary layer with arrays of embedded streamwise vortices containing both counterrotating and corotating vortex pairs. The data show that these arrays can cause both large local variations in the heat transfer rate and significant net heat transfer augmentation over large areas. Close proximity of other vortices strongly affects the development of the vortex arrays by modifying the trajectory that they follow. The vortices in turn produce strong distortion of the normal two-dimensional boundary layer structure, which is due to their secondary flow. When one vortex convects another toward the wall, a strong boundary layer distortion occurs. The heat transfer is elevated where the secondary flow is directed toward the wall and reduced where the secondary flow is directed away from the wall. When adjacent vortices lift their neighbor away from the wall, minimal modification of the heat transfer results. The primary influence of grouping multiple vortex pairs into arrays is the development of stable patterns of vortices. These stable vortex patterns produce vortices that interact with the boundary layer and strongly modify the heat transfer far downstream, even where the vortices have decayed in strength.
The Effect of Embedded Longitudinal Vortex Arrays on Turbulent Boundary Layer Heat Transfer
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Pauley, W. R., and Eaton, J. K. (November 1, 1994). "The Effect of Embedded Longitudinal Vortex Arrays on Turbulent Boundary Layer Heat Transfer." ASME. J. Heat Transfer. November 1994; 116(4): 871–879. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.2911461
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