Abstract

Here we consider velocity profiles of three dimensional attaching and attached jets emerging from circular nozzles. Like their well-studied two-dimensional counterparts, these wall jets lose momentum due to interactions with nearby surfaces. Unlike their two-dimensional counterparts, simple and quantitative expressions for the velocity profiles of three-dimensional wall jets remain elusive. Here we present a quantitative analytical model of the three-dimensional velocity profiles of attached jets inclusive of a local skin coefficient of friction. We compare these expressions to experimental velocity profiles at moderate and high nozzle Reynolds numbers to find reasonable quantitative agreement. This work has implications for a variety of industries including nuclear waste processing, where jet flows in mixing vessels suspend solids and gases trapped in radioactive waste tanks.

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