Vortical structures and associated instabilities of appended Athena wetted transom flow in full-scale conditions are studied using DES to explain the source of dominant transom flow frequency, including verification and validation using full-scale experimental data. The results are also compared with model-scale bare and appended hull predictions and experiments. The grid used for the validation is sufficiently fine as it resolves 70% and 91% of the experimental inertial subrange and turbulent kinetic energy values, respectively. The model-scale bare and appended hull resistance predictions compare within 2.5%D and 5.4%D of the experimental data D, respectively. The full-scale appended hull resistance predictions compare within 4.2%D of the extrapolated data using the ITTC line. The averaged comparison error of the full-scale transom wave elevation mean, RMS and dominant frequency predictions and the experimental data is 8.1%D, and the predictions are validated at an averaged 11.2%D interval. The transom wave elevation unsteadiness is attributed to the Karman-like transom vortex shedding as both show the same dominant frequency. The Karman-like instability shows St = 0.148 for the bare hull and St = 0.103 ± 4.4% for model- and full-scale appended hull. The appended hull simulations also predict: horseshoe vortices at the juncture of rudder-hull with St = 0.146 ± 3.9% and strut-hull with St = 0.053 ± 2%; shear layer instability at the strut-hull intersection with St = 0.0067 ± 3%; and unsteady sinkage and trim induced by transom vortex shedding with St = 2.19. The instabilities do not show significant variation on scale, propeller or motions. The bare hull simulation also predicts flapping-like instability in the wake with St = 0.144.
Vortical Structures and Instability Analysis for Athena Wetted Transom Flow with Full-Scale Validation
Bhushan, S., Xing, T., and Stern, F. (March 19, 2012). "Vortical Structures and Instability Analysis for Athena Wetted Transom Flow with Full-Scale Validation." ASME. J. Fluids Eng. March 2012; 134(3): 031201. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4006173
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