When structures having inclined surfaces, such as cone-type and inclined-pile structures, are constructed in coastal and offshore cold regions, sea ice forces must be considered in their design. In order to estimate these forces, the relationships of the coefficients of static and kinetic friction between sea ice and construction materials must be evaluated. The authors have been conducting, for four years, experiments on the coefficients of friction between sea ice and various commonly used offshore construction materials such as concrete and steel. This paper summarizes the results of this study. The coefficients of friction have been found to be affected by the following: (i) relative velocity (i.e., velocity of construction material relative to sea ice); (ii) sea ice temperature; and (iii) surface roughness of construction material. They have been found to be relatively unaffected by the following: (i) contact area, (ii) normal stress, (iii) growth direction of sea ice, and (iv) water at the sea ice-material interface.

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