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Anterior and posterior views of the experimental setup. The white coordinat...
Published Online: January 21, 2022
Fig. 1 Anterior and posterior views of the experimental setup. The white coordinate system is that of the force and torque sensor, while the black is the joint coordinate system ( X  = anteroposterior axis; Y  = longitudinal axis; Z  = mediolateral axis). The image on the left depicts the uncons... More
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The moment–angle relationship obtained from C3C4 and C5C6 specimens. The la...
Published Online: January 21, 2022
Fig. 2 The moment–angle relationship obtained from C3C4 and C5C6 specimens. The labeled lines indicate: (A) 300% extension; (B) 100% extension; (C) neutral; (D) 100% flexion; (E) 300% flexion. Recall that the angular deviation presented in this figure is with respect to the point of elastic equili... More
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The resultant anterior–posterior shear force measured in C3C4 ( a ) and C5C...
Published Online: January 21, 2022
Fig. 3 The resultant anterior–posterior shear force measured in C3C4 ( a ) and C5C6 ( b ) spinal units. Shear forces are presented for each posture, load, and constraint conditions. Error bars represent one standard deviation. Interaction effects are described in text. The resultant anterior–pos... More
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The resultant moment about the mediolateral joint axis in C3C4 ( a ) and C5...
Published Online: January 21, 2022
Fig. 4 The resultant moment about the mediolateral joint axis in C3C4 ( a ) and C5C6 ( b ) spinal units. The moments are presented for each posture and constraint condition. Error bars represent one standard deviation. Interaction effects are described in text. The resultant moment about the med... More
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The average anterior–posterior (A–P) CoP translation with respect to the ne...
Published Online: January 21, 2022
Fig. 5 The average anterior–posterior (A–P) CoP translation with respect to the neutral posture in C3C4 ( a ) and C5C6 ( b ) spinal units. Error bars represent one standard deviation. The asterisk indicates a significant difference from all other postures ( p  <   0.05). The average anterior–... More
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A previously validated, custom-built impact device was used to deliver a re...
Published Online: January 21, 2022
Fig. 1 A previously validated, custom-built impact device was used to deliver a rear-end collision severity of approximately 24 km/h. Superior and inferior endplates of each FSU were secured and a constant compressive load of 300 N was applied throughout passive ROM testing. Movement of the FSU du... More
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Left—sample raw data from one cycle of the pre-impact and postimpact passiv...
Published Online: January 21, 2022
Fig. 2 Left—sample raw data from one cycle of the pre-impact and postimpact passive flexion–extension test. Right—sample raw data from one cycle of the anterior-posterior shear passive test pre-impact and postimpact. Left—sample raw data from one cycle of the pre-impact and postimpact passive fl... More
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( a ) Two-point calibration of raw video data using a 23.83 mm calibration ...
Published Online: January 21, 2022
Fig. 3 ( a ) Two-point calibration of raw video data using a 23.83 mm calibration stick. ( b ) P ro A nalyst software was used to manually define markers on the FSU. ( c ) Defined markers at the end of the passive shear range of motion test. Markers were tracked throughout the test. (a) Two-poi... More
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Sample data from one FE range-of-motion test.      E    y  y      values wi...
Published Online: January 21, 2022
Fig. 4 Sample data from one FE range-of-motion test. E y y values within ±200% of the flexion–extension neutral zone plotted against angle are displayed for pre- and postimpact range-of-motion testing. The linear fit as well as the root mean squared error (RMSE) and explained varianc... More
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Average slopes computed for linear fits of      E    x  x     ,      E    y...
Published Online: January 21, 2022
Fig. 5 Average slopes computed for linear fits of E x x , E y y , and E x y versus angle, pre- and post- impact during FE range-of-motion testing. Error bars represent one standard deviation. No significant differences were observed. Average slopes compute... More
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Average slopes computed for linear fits of      E    x  x     ,      E    y...
Published Online: January 21, 2022
Fig. 6 Average slopes computed for linear fits of E x x , E y y , and E x y versus displacement, pre- and postimpact during AP range-of-motion testing. Error bars represent one standard deviation. No significant differences were observed ( p > 0.05 ). Av... More
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View of 12 stem designs, based on the drawings from Sabatini and Goswamy, 2...
Published Online: January 21, 2022
Fig. 1 View of 12 stem designs, based on the drawings from Sabatini and Goswamy, 2008 View of 12 stem designs, based on the drawings from Sabatini and Goswamy, 2008 More
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Setup of hip profile 2 with trapezoidal cross section according to ISO 7206...
Published Online: January 21, 2022
Fig. 2 Setup of hip profile 2 with trapezoidal cross section according to ISO 7206. LOP: Loading point, C: Femoral head center, LA: Load axis, NE: Neck area, PL: Potting level, SA: Stem axis, T: Most distal point of the stem, O: Intersection between the potting level and the shaft axis, α: Angle i... More
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Experimental setup of profile 2 circular cross-sectional area   Experimenta...
Published Online: January 21, 2022
Fig. 3 Experimental setup of profile 2 circular cross-sectional area Experimental setup of profile 2 circular cross-sectional area More
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Computational and experimental location of the maximum principal stress in ...
Published Online: January 21, 2022
Fig. 4 Computational and experimental location of the maximum principal stress in compression Computational and experimental location of the maximum principal stress in compression More
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Theoretical slopes versus computational slopes   Theoretical slopes versus ...
Published Online: January 21, 2022
Fig. 5 Theoretical slopes versus computational slopes Theoretical slopes versus computational slopes More
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Convergence analysis for the hip profile 2 trapezoidal cross section, maxim...
Published Online: January 21, 2022
Fig. 7 Convergence analysis for the hip profile 2 trapezoidal cross section, maximum von Mises stress at the PL Convergence analysis for the hip profile 2 trapezoidal cross section, maximum von Mises stress at the PL More
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Computational solution for the femoral stem profile 2 cross-sectional circu...
Published Online: January 21, 2022
Fig. 8 Computational solution for the femoral stem profile 2 cross-sectional circular. Von Mises stress (MPa), Displacement magnitude (mm). Computational solution for the femoral stem profile 2 cross-sectional circular. Von Mises stress (MPa), Displacement magnitude (mm). More
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Overview of the analysis process. Calibration of measurement data from sens...
Published Online: January 21, 2022
Fig. 1 Overview of the analysis process. Calibration of measurement data from sensors relative to the bony segments via the sensor-to-body segment calibration method to calculate the segment angular velocities, angular accelerations, and accelerations. The calibrated body segment data were input i... More