In this study, a three-stage bio-aerosol sampler with a sampling flow rate of 170 L/min was designed and fabricated for sampling the bio-aerosols released during human breathing and coughing, and its performance was evaluated. The sampler was constructed using a cyclone separator with a cutoff size of 2.5 μm as a preseparator, a multinozzle virtual impactor with a cutoff size of 0.34 μm as an aerosol concentrator, and a Bio-Sampler, which is a commercial product, for collecting bio-aerosols in a collection fluid. The collection efficiency of the sampler was evaluated through simulations and experiments. Only particles with sizes of 0.1–4 μm were selectively collected in the collection fluid. Bacteriophage bio-aerosols were sampled using the developed sampler and ACD-200 Bobcat sampler, which is a commercial product. The amounts of collected bacteriophages were compared using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. The sampling performance of the developed sampler was similar to that of the ACD-200 Bobcat sampler. Moreover, the developed sampler showed its ability to sample bio-aerosols of a specific size range and collect them directly in a collection fluid for the PCR analysis. Therefore, the developed sampler is expected to be useful for indoor environmental monitoring by effectively sampling the bio-aerosols released indoors during human breathing and coughing.