Murine models of disease are a powerful tool for researchers to gain insight into disease formation, progression, and therapies. The biomechanical indicators of diseased tissue provide a unique insight into some of these murine models, since the biomechanical properties in scenarios such as aneurysm and Marfan syndrome can dictate tissue failure and mortality. Understanding the properties of the tissue on the macroscopic scale has been shown to be important, as one can then understand the tissue’s ability to withstand the high stresses seen in the cardiac pulsatile cycle. Alterations in the biomechanical response can foreshadow prospective mechanical failure of the tissue. These alterations are often seen on the microstructural level, and obtaining detailed information on such changes can offer a better understanding of the phenomena seen on the macroscopic level. Unfortunately, mouse models present problems due to the size and delicate features in the mechanical testing of such tissues. In addition, some smaller arteries in large-animal studies (e.g., coronary and cerebral arteries) can present the same issues, and are sometimes unsuitable for planar biaxial testing. The purpose of this paper is to present a robust method for the investigation of the mechanical properties of small arteries and the classification of the microstructural orientation and degree of fiber alignment. This occurs through the cost-efficient modification of a planar biaxial tester that works in conjunction with a two-photon nonlinear microscope. This system provides a means to further investigate how microstructure and mechanical properties are modified in diseased transgenic animals where the tissue is in small tube form. Several other hard-to-test tubular specimens such as cerebral aneurysm arteries and atherosclerotic coronary arteries can also be tested using the described modular device.
Adaptation of a Planar Microbiaxial Optomechanical Device for the Tubular Biaxial Microstructural and Macroscopic Characterization of Small Vascular Tissues
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Keyes, J. T., Haskett, D. G., Utzinger, U., Azhar, M., and Vande Geest, J. P. (July 29, 2011). "Adaptation of a Planar Microbiaxial Optomechanical Device for the Tubular Biaxial Microstructural and Macroscopic Characterization of Small Vascular Tissues." ASME. J Biomech Eng. July 2011; 133(7): 075001. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4004495
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