Over the past 25 years, many laboratory based bioreactors have been used to study the cellular response to hemodynamic forces. The vast majority of these studies have focused on the effect of a single isolated hemodynamic force, generally consisting of a wall shear stress (WSS) or a tensile hoop strain (THS). However, investigating the cellular response to a single isolated force does not accurately represent the true in vivo situation, where a number of forces are acting simultaneously. This study used a novel bioreactor to investigate the cellular response of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) exposed to a combination of steady WSS and a range of cyclic THS. HUVECs exposed to a range of cyclic THS (0–12%), over a 12 h testing period, expressed an upregulation of both ICAM-1 and VCAM-1. HUVECs exposed to a steady WSS ( and ), over a 12 h testing period, also exhibited an ICAM-1 upregulation but a VCAM-1 downregulation, where the greatest level of WSS stimulus resulted in the largest upregulation and downregulation of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, respectively. A number of HUVEC samples were exposed to a high steady WSS combined with a range of cyclic THS (0–4%, 0–8%, and 0–12%) for a 12 h testing period. The initial ICAM-1 upregulation, due to the WSS alone, was downregulated with the addition of a cyclic THS. It was observed that the largest THS (0–12%) had the greatest reducing effect on the ICAM-1 upregulation. Similarly, the initial VCAM-1 downregulation, due to the high steady WSS alone, was further downregulated with the addition of a cyclic THS. A similar outcome was observed when HUVEC samples were exposed to a low steady WSS combined with a range of cyclic THS. However, the addition of a THS to the low WSS did not result in an expected ICAM-1 downregulation. In fact, it resulted in a trend of unexpected ICAM-1 upregulation. The unexpected cellular response to the combination of a steady WSS and a cyclic THS demonstrates that such a response could not be determined by simply superimposing the cellular responses exhibited by ECs exposed to a steady WSS and a cyclic THS that were applied in isolation.
Multi-Axial Mechanical Stimulation of HUVECs Demonstrates That Combined Loading is not Equivalent to the Superposition of Individual Wall Shear Stress and Tensile Hoop Stress Components
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Breen, L. T., McHugh, P. E., and Murphy, B. P. (June 17, 2009). "Multi-Axial Mechanical Stimulation of HUVECs Demonstrates That Combined Loading is not Equivalent to the Superposition of Individual Wall Shear Stress and Tensile Hoop Stress Components." ASME. J Biomech Eng. August 2009; 131(8): 081001. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.3127248
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