Knowledge of mitral valve (MV) mechanics is essential for the understanding of normal MV function, and the design and evaluation of new surgical repair procedures. In the present study, we extended our investigation of MV dynamic strain behavior to quantify the dynamic strain on the central region of the posterior leaflet. Native porcine MVs were mounted in an in-vitro physiologic flow loop. The papillary muscle (PM) positions were set to the normal, taut, and slack states to simulate physiological and pathological PM positions. Leaflet deformation was measured by tracking the displacements of 16 small markers placed in the central region of the posterior leaflet. Local leaflet tissue strain and strain rates were calculated from the measured displacements under dynamic loading conditions. A total of 18 mitral valves were studied. Our findings indicated the following: (1) There was a rapid rise in posterior leaflet strain during valve closure followed by a plateau where no additional strain (i.e., no creep) occurred. (2) The strain field was highly anisotropic with larger stretches and stretch rates in the radial direction. There were negligible stretches, or even compression in the circumferential direction at the beginning of valve closure. (3) The areal strain curves were similar to the stretches in the trends. The posterior leaflet showed no significant differences in either peak stretches or stretch rates during valve closure between the normal, taut, and slack PM positions. (4) As compared with the anterior leaflet, the posterior leaflet demonstrated overall lower stretch rates in the normal PM position. However, the slack and taut PM positions did not demonstrate the significant difference in the stretch rates and areal strain rates between the posterior leaflet and the anterior leaflet. The MV posterior leaflet exhibited pronounced mechanically anisotropic behavior. Loading rates of the MV posterior leaflet were very high. The PM positions influenced neither peak stretch nor stretch rates in the central area of the posterior leaflet. The stretch rates and areal strain rates were significantly lower in the posterior leaflet than those measured in the anterior leaflet in the normal PM position. However, the slack and taut PM positions did not demonstrate the significant differences between the posterior leaflet and the anterior leaflet. We conclude that PM positions may influence the posterior strain in a different way as compared to the anterior leaflet.
In Vitro Dynamic Strain Behavior of the Mitral Valve Posterior Leaflet
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He, Z., Ritchie, J., Grashow, J. S., Sacks, M. S., and Yoganathan, A. P. (January 31, 2005). "In Vitro Dynamic Strain Behavior of the Mitral Valve Posterior Leaflet." ASME. J Biomech Eng. June 2005; 127(3): 504–511. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.1894385
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