Flow in distal end-to-side anastomoses of iliofemoral artery bypass grafts was simulated using a steady flow, three-dimensional numerical model. With the proximal artery occluded, anastomotic angles were varied over 20, 30, 40, 45, 50, 60 and 70 deg while the inlet Reynolds numbers were 100 and 205. Fully developed flow in the graft became somewhat skewed toward the inner wall with increasing angle for both Reynolds numbers. Separated flow regions were seen along the inner arterial wall (toe region) for angles ≥ 60 deg at Re = 100 and for angles ≥ 45 deg at Re = 205 while a stagnation point existed along the outer arterial wall (floor region) for all cases which moved downstream relative to the toe of the anastomosis with decreasing angles. Normalized shear rates (NSR) along the arterial wall varied widely throughout the anastomotic region with negative values seen in the separation zones and upstream of the stagnation points which increased in magnitude with angle. The NSR increased with distance downstream of the stagnation point and with magnitudes which increased with the angle. Compared with observations from chronic in vivo studies, these results appear to support the hypothesis of greater intimal hyperplasia occurring in regions of low fluid shear.

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