Ballistic tests were performed on single-yarn, single-layer and ten-layer targets of Kevlar® KM2 (600 and 850 denier), Dyneema® SK-65 and PBO® (500 denier). The objective was to develop data for validation of numerical models so, multiple diagnostic techniques were used: (1) ultra-high speed photography, (2) high-speed video and (3) nickel-chromium wire technique. These techniques allowed thorough validation of the numerical models through five different paths. The first validation set was at the yarn level, where the transverse wave propagation obtained with analytical and numerical simulations was compared to that obtained in the experiments. The second validation path was at the single-layer level: the propagation of the pyramidal wave observed with the high speed camera was compared to the numerical simulations. The third validation consisted of comparing, for the targets with ten layers, the pyramid apex and diagonal positions from tests and simulations. The fourth validation, which is probably the most relevant, consisted of comparing the numerical and experimental ballistic limits. Finally for the fifth validation set, nickel-chromium wires were used to record electronically the waves propagating in the fabrics. It is shown that for the three materials the waves recorded during the tests match well the waves predicted by the numerical model.
Modeling of Fabric Impact With High Speed Imaging and Nickel-Chromium Wires Validation
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Chocron, S., Kirchdoerfer, T., King, N., and Freitas, C. J. (July 28, 2011). "Modeling of Fabric Impact With High Speed Imaging and Nickel-Chromium Wires Validation." ASME. J. Appl. Mech. September 2011; 78(5): 051007. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4004280
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