Morphing is a technology with high potential to reduce emissions in aviation, since it enables wings to adapt their shape to operate at a higher efficiency over the full range of flight conditions. This paper is presenting a concept to adapt camber by drooping the nose. The scope is the setup and bench top testing of a full scale wing tip leading edge wind tunnel model with a morphing droop nose. The complete model features a span of 1.3 m and a strong taper from the root to the tip. For completeness, the design approach is covered as well. The design comprises a GFRP skin to be drooped by two compliant mechanisms, which are driven by linear motors. The compliant morphing devices are “designed-through-optimization”, with the optimization algorithms including Simplex optimization for composite compliant skin design, continuum-based and load path representation topology optimization methods for compliant internal substructure design. The compliant mechanism is manufactured by nickel-titanium alloy to allow high strains in the order of several percent, which is shown to be critical in the design of such compliant mechanisms. In order to validate the models, strains within the mechanisms are measured while drooping the nose in the bench top test. This is done after installing the mechanisms into the leading edge skin. It can be shown, that the simulation for the inboard mechanism is close to the experimental results. The comparison of strain levels in the skin and in the mechanism during droop reveals that the stiffness distribution between these two components is quite different. As a result this ratio can be taken into account in future design processes in order to distribute strains more evenly. Moreover the 3D shapes of the morphed and clean skin are measured and their comparison with the target shapes is presented as well. Finally, the bench top tests are a proof of concept for the overall concept and design which resultes in a “go” for the following low speed subsonic wind tunnel tests.
- Aerospace Division
Bench Top Test of a Droop Nose With Compliant Mechanism
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Riemenschneider, J, Vasista, S, van de Kamp, B, & Monner, HP. "Bench Top Test of a Droop Nose With Compliant Mechanism." Proceedings of the ASME 2015 Conference on Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems. Volume 2: Integrated System Design and Implementation; Structural Health Monitoring; Bioinspired Smart Materials and Systems; Energy Harvesting. Colorado Springs, Colorado, USA. September 21–23, 2015. V002T04A004. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/SMASIS2015-8853
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