Non-invasive characterization and manipulation of tissue structure and function across spatial scales is one of the most challenging problems facing the use of optical techniques in biomedicine. A broad technical goal for the use of optical methods is the non-invasive measurement and/or manipulation of tissue structure and function on the microscopic scale while preserving the ability to interrogate the largest possible tissue volume. This overall goal has resulted in a plethora of optical diagnostic, imaging, and therapeutic methodologies that utilize specific light-tissue interactions and exploit various endogenous and/or exogenous optical contrast elements.

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