The regulation of whole-body angular momentum is essential for maintaining dynamic balance during human walking and appears to be tightly controlled during normal and pathological movement (e.g., [1, 2]). The primary mechanism to regulate angular momentum is muscle force generation, which accelerates the body segments and generates ground reaction forces that alter angular momentum about the body’s center-of-mass to restore and maintain dynamic balance. Previous modeling studies have shown the ankle plantarflexors are important contributors to the anterior/posterior, vertical and medial/lateral ground reaction forces during human walking [3, 4], and therefore appear critical to regulating angular momentum and maintaining dynamic balance during walking.

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