When engineering fibrous tissues in vitro, appropriate matrix anisotropy is considered important for long term functionality and durability in vivo. However, it is not fully understood how to guide, maintain and control matrix anisotropy. Experiments suggest that collagen anisotropy is affected by actin-mediated cell traction and associated cellular orientation [1]. Although cellular orientation in 2D can be manipulated via imposed uniaxial cyclic stretch [2], 3D data are lacking. We questioned how uniaxial cyclic stretch influences actin and collagen orientation in 3D constructs.

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