Measurement of bone mineral density (BMD) by DXA (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) is generally considered to be the clinical gold standard to diagnose osteoporosis. However, BMD alone is only a moderate predictor of fracture risk. Finite element analyses (FEA) of bone mechanics can contribute to a more accurate prediction of fracture risk (Cody et al. 1999). However, CT imaging is relatively expensive and inflicts larger radiation doses on the patient.
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Functional Imaging of the Proximal Femur Using Shape Template and a Bone Mineral Density Image
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Väänänen, SP, Isaksson, H, & Jurvelin, JS. "Functional Imaging of the Proximal Femur Using Shape Template and a Bone Mineral Density Image." Proceedings of the ASME 2011 Summer Bioengineering Conference. ASME 2011 Summer Bioengineering Conference, Parts A and B. Farmington, Pennsylvania, USA. June 22–25, 2011. pp. 283-284. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/SBC2011-53103
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