Bypass graft (BG) surgeries involve surgical construction of a graft over a blocked blood vessel. The graft can either be native tissue of the patient or a synthetic material. Some commonly performed BG surgeries include aorto-bifemoral, femoro-popliteal, femoro-tibial, and coronary artery bypass (CABG). The operative mortality rate for CABG is around 3%. Around 15 to 30% of bypass grafts occlude within the first year of surgery, increasing to over 50% after 10 years. Graft incompatibility, and hemodynamic factors such as blood recirculation, low wall shear stress, and abnormal wall shear stress gradients play an important role in the onset and development of intimal thickening and plaque deposition (atherogenesis).

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