In biomechanical terms, passive joint laxity is a measure of joint movement within the constraints of ligaments, capsule, and cartilage  when an external force is applied to the joint during a state of muscular relaxation. Excessive knee joint laxity (reduced stiffness) can result from soft tissue injury, such as a ligament tear, or from genetic factors such as benign joint hypermobility syndrome, and can predispose the joint to instability including recurrent dislocations, and low-grade inflammatory arthritis . The link between laxity and instability may be better understood if laxity can be reliably and accurately quantified. To more fully understand the underlying joint mechanics, it is necessary to quantify both gross knee joint stiffness as well as the stiffness characteristics of individual joint structures, such as the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL).
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Quantification of In Vivo Knee Joint Laxity
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Westover, LM, Küpper, JC, & Ronsky, JL. "Quantification of In Vivo Knee Joint Laxity." Proceedings of the ASME 2009 Summer Bioengineering Conference. ASME 2009 Summer Bioengineering Conference, Parts A and B. Lake Tahoe, California, USA. June 17–21, 2009. pp. 809-810. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/SBC2009-206323
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