Skeletal muscles’ primary function is the application of force to its bony origins and insertions. There are various models of muscle function that generally assume a uniform behavior from origin to insertion during force generation even though the structure and activation is complex. Engineering strains within skeletal muscles, though, have been shown to be non-uniform . We have developed methods to quantify Lagrangian finite strains using cine phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (CPCMRI) and post-processing algorithms  and have described them during cyclic motion in the supraspinatus and biceps brachii. Principal and maximum in-plane shear strains can be identified at the scale of millimeters throughout the contracting and elongating muscle.
- Bioengineering Division
Maximum Contractile Strain in the Biceps Brachii Is Bounded by Sarcomere Geometry
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Novotny, JE, Knarr, BA, & Zhou, H. "Maximum Contractile Strain in the Biceps Brachii Is Bounded by Sarcomere Geometry." Proceedings of the ASME 2008 Summer Bioengineering Conference. ASME 2008 Summer Bioengineering Conference, Parts A and B. Marco Island, Florida, USA. June 25–29, 2008. pp. 369-370. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/SBC2008-192589
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