Congenital heart defects are structural problems with the heart and/or major blood vessels which in the U.S. alone affect as many as 1.3 million people [1]. A common form of abnormality is a stenosis or narrowing of the pulmonary arteries. Chronic pulmonary artery stenosis may lead to differential lung growth and reduced cardiac performance. Treatment, however, may result in no significant improvements in flow distribution or pressure because of the properties of the vascular bed downstream of the stenosis.

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