Back pain has been described as one of the most common and significant musculoskeletal problems in the United States leading to substantial amounts of morbidity, disability and economic loss. Among people under 45 years of age, low back disorders (LBDs) are the leading cause of activity limitation and affects up to 47% of workers with physically demanding jobs. Low back disorders are associated with occupational lifting. Retrospective studies of industrial injuries have identified manual material handling (MMH) as the most common cause of LBD. Disc degeneration has also been associated with physical work. Thus, loading due to lifting and manual material handling is believed to be a significant factor in the development of occupationally related LBDs.
Relationship Between Lumbar Disc Injury and Manual Lifting: A Finite Element Model Study
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Natarajan, RN, Williams, JR, Lavender, SA, & Andersson, GBJ. "Relationship Between Lumbar Disc Injury and Manual Lifting: A Finite Element Model Study." Proceedings of the ASME 2007 Summer Bioengineering Conference. ASME 2007 Summer Bioengineering Conference. Keystone, Colorado, USA. June 20–24, 2007. pp. 293-294. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/SBC2007-170077
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