There is a lack of rules and standards that provide guidelines for material selection and qualification of materials for offshore and onshore structures in arctic areas. Many current standards for low temperature applications such as cryogenic piping and process systems do not reflect the need for low-cost bulk materials for large volume applications such as pipelines and production facilities. The growing focus on oil and gas exploration in arctic areas has raised the need for new standards and industry practice that supports cost effective and safe installation and operation of production and transport facilities in the cold climate. There are materials today that are applicable for low temperature conditions. The grades are often highly alloyed (typically 3–9% Ni) with good toughness properties, but these alloys are expensive compared to conventional steel material grades. Such materials may not be applicable in pipelines, structures and process plants. This challenge can be met in two ways. First, structural steels that are capable of being welded and operated in the cold climate should be developed and qualified. Second, materials for forged and casted components that can be welded to the structural steels should be developed and qualified to fit into the integrated structure or pipeline system. Some actions have been taken to develop new standards e.g. within ISO19906, and actions are being taken in Russia to harmonize their specifications with the international standards, but this is a comprehensive job and the work must be executed in parallel with the development of new steels and welding technology.
Material Challenges in Arctic Areas
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Horn, AM, Kvaale, PE, & Hauge, M. "Material Challenges in Arctic Areas." Proceedings of the ASME 2007 26th International Conference on Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering. Volume 4: Materials Technology; Ocean Engineering. San Diego, California, USA. June 10–15, 2007. pp. 209-216. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/OMAE2007-29579
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