Vascular thrombosis, intimal hyperplasia, and atherosclerosis are common disorders affecting a very large portion of the human population. A potential reduction in these disorders will elicit a significant impact. It has been shown that endothelial cells play a critical role in protecting blood vessels against the formation of thrombosis and atherosclerosis. Hence, a successful endothelial cell lining of arterial constructs will prevent intimal hyperplasia in reconstructed arteries. However, in practice endothelial cells often detach from reconstructed arteries due to weak adhesion strength, hindering the effectiveness of endothelial cell lining.

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