Hybrid Micro-composite E-springs are an optimized trend of springs first introduced to vehicle suspension systems. At first, a comparison between E-shape and other spring shapes is held theoretically. This theoretical comparison is verified numerically. The E-shape has proved to be the best shape in this comparison striking a balance between spring vertical deflection and maximum induced stress. Next, shape optimization of a hybrid micro-composite E-spring is conducted. At last, a thermoplastic-based hybrid micro-composite structure of the optimized E-spring is modified at micro-scale with additives of micrometer-sized particles of mineral clay. The proposed spring is presented in new passive and semi-active suspension mechanisms, displacing and remedying drawbacks of both the hydraulic dampers and steel springs.

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