With the degradation of metrorail facilities and the increase in network size, it is urgently needed to perform vulnerability assessment to ensure the safe operation of the metro system. In this paper, a link-weighted network model is proposed by considering the physical interval length between neighboring metro stations as link weight factor. Firstly, the metro network was essentially mapped into a bipartite topological diagram that consists of nodes denoting metro stations and links representing metro routes including any tunnels or bridges. After analyzing the network for its complexity level, it was revealed that the metro network topology can be appropriately constructed by using the Space L method. On this basis, multiple characteristic indexes of the network were calculated to characterize network topology structural features. We then tested the state of Shanghai metro network under different failure scenarios by removing a fraction of nodes from the network. Quantitative vulnerability analyses were conducted according to the change in the topological structure of Shanghai metro network and the change in the corresponding global network efficiency due to disruptions. Finally, both the network efficiency of link-weighted and unweighted Shanghai metro network topology were calculated and compared. This study has identified the vulnerable metro stations, which could provide support for the reasonable resource allocation of maintenance work and the decision-making in emergency treatment after failure. In order to increase the adaptability to emergencies and improve the operational efficiency, it was proposed that during the planning, construction, and operation of the metro system, the management and protection of the vulnerable stations should be given increased attention.

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