Tooth reconstruction materials are used to reconstruct damaged teeth as well as to recover their functions. In this study, the mechanical properties of various tooth reconstruction materials were determined using test specimens of identical shape and dimension under the same compressive test condition; the hardness values of them were obtained from previous studies and compared with those of enamel and dentin.

Amalgam, dental ceramic, dental gold alloy, dental resin, zirconia and titanium were processed as tooth reconstruction material specimens. For each material, 10 specimens having a of 3.0 × 1.2 × 1.2 mm (length × width × height) were used.

The stresses, strains, and elastic moduli of amalgam, dental ceramic, gold alloy, dental resin, zirconia, and titanium alloy were obtained from the compressive test. The hardness values of amalgam, dental ceramic, gold alloy, dental resin, zirconia, and titanium alloy were obtained from the references [14–19].

And, the stresses, strains, elastic moduli, and the hardness values of enamel and dentin were obtained from the reference [13].

The mechanical role of enamel is to crush food and protect dentin because of its higher wear resistance, and that of dentin is to absorb bite forces because of its higher force resistance. Therefore, the hardness value should be prioritized for enamel replacement materials, and mechanical properties should be prioritized for dentin replacement materials. Therefore, zirconia and titanium alloy were considered suitable tooth reconstruction materials for replacing enamel, and gold alloy, zirconia, and titanium alloy were considered suitable tooth reconstruction materials for replacing dentin. However, owing to the excessive mechanical properties and hardness values of zirconia and titanium alloy, these may show poor biocompatibility with natural teeth.

Thus far, no tooth reconstruction material satisfies the requirements of having both a hardness value similar to that of enamel and mechanical properties similar to those of dentin.

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