In data centers with raised floor architecture, the floor tiles are typically perforated, delivering the cold air from the plenum to the inlets of equipment located in racks. The environment of these data centers is dynamic in that the workload and power dissipation fluctuate considerably over both short-term and long-term time scales. As such, airflow requirements vary continuously. However, due to labor costs and lack of expertise, the tiles are adjusted infrequently, and many data centers are grossly over provisioned for airflow in general and/or lack sufficient airflow delivery in certain local areas. This wastes energy and reduces data center thermal capacity. We have previously introduced Kratos, an Adaptive Vent Tile (AVT) technology that addresses this problem by automatically adjusting mechanical louvers mounted to the tiles in response to the needs of nearby IT equipment. Our initial results were limited to a 3-tile test bed that allowed us to prove concept but did not provide for scalability. This paper extends the previous work by expanding the size of the test bed to 28 tiles and 29 racks located in multiple thermal zones. We present experimental modeling results on the MIMO (Multi-Input Multi-Output) system and provide insights on the external behavior of the system through CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamic) analysis. We develop an MPC (Model-based Predictive Control) controller to maintain the temperatures of racks below the thresholds through vent tile tuning. Experimental results show that the controller can maintain the temperature below the thresholds while reducing overall cooling air requirements.
Kratos: Automated Management of Cooling Capacity in Data Centers With Adaptive Vent Tiles
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Wang, Z, McReynolds, A, Felix, C, Bash, C, Hoover, C, Beitelmal, M, & Shih, R. "Kratos: Automated Management of Cooling Capacity in Data Centers With Adaptive Vent Tiles." Proceedings of the ASME 2009 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition. Volume 10: Mechanical Systems and Control, Parts A and B. Lake Buena Vista, Florida, USA. November 13–19, 2009. pp. 269-278. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/IMECE2009-11747
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