Researchers at Texas A&M University have studied properties of cattle biomass (CB or manure) fuels and their possible utility in combustion systems. Larger, more concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO) and farms make manure disposal more difficult. At the same time, due to the concentration of the manure, the CAFOs can be a source of a more feasible and reliable CB feedstock for fossil fuel supplementation and emissions reduction technologies. This paper reviews the history of work conducted on animal biomass fuels and current research and experiments undertaken by Texas A&M University (TAMU) System research personnel. Feedlot biomass (FB), dairy biomass (DB), and chicken litter biomass (LB) are considered here. When cofiring with coal under rich conditions, the CB has the potential to reduce NOx and Hg emissions. Reburning coal with CB can be just as effective as and possibly more economical than reburning with conventional fuels like natural gas. In addition to cofiring and reburning, another possible energy conversion method is gasification of cattle biomass with air and air-steam oxidizing agents that can produce synthetic gases which can then be used in a variety of different combustion systems. The economic feasibility of utilizing animal-based biomass on existing coal-fired power plants is greatly dependent on the relative cost of coal, the biomass transportation distance to the combustion facility, and numerous other factors. Even though most of the methodologies and procedures, in this paper, deal with CB, similar schemes can be undertaken for most other animal or solid wastes.

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