The objective of this study was to determine the forces and bending moments at the top of the Hybrid III dummy neck secondary to rear impact acceleration and evaluate the various proposed injury criteria. Rear impact sled tests were conducted by applying the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards FMVSS 202 acceleration pulse. Differing positions of the head restraint in terms of height (750 and 800 mm) and backset (zero, 50, and 100 mm) were used to determine the axial and shear forces, bending moments, and injury criteria (NIC, Nij, and Nkm). The time sequence of attainment of these parameters was determined along with peak values.

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