There is a sizable unmet demand for effective small-diameter vascular prostheses for use in coronary bypass surgery. Currently, the best replacements for occluded arteries are autologous arteries, which have a cumulative patency rate of up to 93% after 5 years [1]. In spite of recent surgical advances the use of autologous arteries, such as the internal thoracic artery, is limited by the availability of donor arteries of appropriate length and diameter. Donor veins of appropriate dimensions are more readily available and frequently used despite substantially lower patency (45% after 5 years) [1]. Many have created tissue-engineered arteries that grossly resemble native vessels, but in animal studies, their performance was inferior to that of autologous veins with about half having decreased perfusion or loss of patency within 1 month [2] whereas human saphenous vein grafts have a patency of ∼90% at early time points and 81% after 1 year [3]).

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